Parforce in budapest, hasenfubigkeit in vienna?

Dealing with double statehoods

Edit(h) Miklos is a Romanian citizen. As a member of the Transylvanian minority of the Szekler, she is an ethnic Magyar. And started in 2011 at the combination slalom in Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the red-white-green tricolor colors of her fatherland Hungary. Why? The gifted skier was before the 41. Alpine skiing world championship changed from Romanian to Hungarian national team.

At the end of 2010, as a Romanian citizen, she had also acquired Hungarian citizenship. It was granted after Viktor Orban’s national conservative government, which has been in office since the parliamentary elections in spring 2010, made it possible for all Magyars who (have to) live outside of Hungary. Of these, more than 600.000 members of the Hungarian ethnic groups living in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia have made use of the. These are the descendants of those Magyars who, after the amputation of two-thirds of the former Hungarian territory enforced by the Treaty of Trianon (1920), suddenly found themselves in other, partly newly created nation-states.

Apart from Slovakia, which of course grants Slovak citizenship to members of Slovak ethnic groups living outside the country (in the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Poland and Hungary), but withdraws Slovak citizenship from Magyars who adopt Hungarian citizenship, none of the above-mentioned states objected to the dual citizenship of their citizens. It goes without saying that Romania grants Romanian citizenship to ethnic Romanians in the neighboring republic of Moldova; Serbia does the same with ethnic Serbs in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro and even in Kosovo; the same applies to Croatia and Slovenia.

With the exception of Serbia, all other countries mentioned are EU members. It is true that in the EU the principle applies that double statehood should remain prohibited as far as possible. But these landers deliberately evade the long-watered principle of. Why? Because he himself was the first signatory of the "Romanian Treaties", Thus, basic members of the EEC/EU – such as Germany and Italy – do not strictly adhere to the EU directive.

Since the red-green government of Schroder/Fischer, Berlin has in fact been allowing double-state citizenship of so-called "green" companies "German-Turks" to. And Italy is known to swallow with its citizenship not only ethnic Italians in Istria – in the Slovenian as well as in the Croatian part – but also in South and North America.

"Do not take the piss out of Italy"

Austria, on the other hand, does not only give the lead in the EU in the (double) statehood ie "Fundamental" – otherwise one rather "unAustrian" Attitude. This is what the descendants of those Tyroleans between the Brenner Pass and the Salurn Hermitage experience, who – like the Magyars in their time – had to decide in favor of the further political development in Europe in the 20th century. The disastrous Paris Suburbs Treaty of the late nineteenth century – for Austria, the Treaty of St. Petersburg – was considered to be the most important treaty of the twentieth century.Germain-en-Laye – found in another state in a foreign national environment, namely in Italy. Vienna has so far rejected all the Sudtirolean initiatives undertaken since 2006 – and supported sporadically from the province of Tyrol, but also from the ranks of members of the National Council.

In this respect, especially oVP exponents distinguished themselves. While expert opinions from the Viennese Federal Chancellery (Verfangsdienst) as well as from jurisprudence (for example, from the Innsbruck legal scholar Walter Obwexer) supported the unproblematic admissibility of granting Austrian citizenship to Sudtiroleans, the Austrian People’s Party (OVP)-led Aubenministerium in particular has acted and continues to act as a brake on the process.

It was not only the behavior of the former Auben minister (and oVP chairman) Michael Spindelegger that caused the opposition Freedom Party to accuse the oVP of "Complicity with Rome against Sudtirol" to accuse. The FPo member of the National Council Neubauer once substantiated this accusation by referring to a personal conversation with the minister and his "bafflingly frank answer" referred to:

Spindelegger told me bluntly that it was out of the question for him to take the piss out of Italy.

That was at the beginning of 2010. The then governor of Sudtirolean Luis Durnwalder also prevented a formal Sudtirolean parliamentary resolution, previously supported by politicians of his SVP – such as the Roman parliamentarians Siegfried Brugger and Karl Zeller – according to which Austria would have had to give up its "Protective power role" in a verfangspraambel should dress and the Sudtirolern the Staatsburgerschaft preserve.

The reluctance and refusal of the Austrian People’s Party (FPo) to deal with the dual citizenship ie reached its climax in the summer of 2013 with the formal rejection of an FPo motion in the National Council. Beyond that it hammered in the "Report of the Federal Minister for European and International Affairs to the National Council concerning Sudtirol autonomy development 2009-2013" under item "7. Acquisition of Austrian citizenship for Sudtiroleans":

The Austrian federal government is of the opinion that the introduction of a simplified acquisition of Austrian citizenship for Sudtiroleans without a Dutch requirement and with the simultaneous retention of Italian citizenship would be associated with a number of hurdles under national and constitutional law as well as practical difficulties and a fundamental systemic change in Austrian citizenship law.

Viennese egg dance around the Austro-Turks

One reason for the Viennese egg dance, which should not be underestimated, is the unspoken – or, at best, secret – concern that granting Austrian citizenship to the Sud Tyrolese would open the legal floodgates to the possibility of dual citizenship for Turks living in Austria. This concern cannot be completely dismissed, but the reality is determined by other facts.

Thus Austro-Turks have to resign their Turkish citizenship before the formal burial in Austria. But anyone with half a clue knows that they will have to report to the Turkish embassy in Vienna or, at the latest, to the Turkish embassy of the city of Vienna as soon as they receive their Austrian passports "Home leave" in Turkey had their Turkish passport ied again. So the whole thing borders on absurd theater.

With marked cards?

The fact that not only Vienna but also Bolzano seems to be playing with marked cards results from the fact that since 2012 there has been a formal resolution in the provincial parliament – also supported by the ruling SVP – in favor of dual citizenship for Sudtiroleans of German and Ladin tongue, but that the well-known dismissive stereotypical statements still come from competent mouths. So Spindelegger’s youthful successor Sebastian Kurz naturally joined the cautionary appeals of Durnwalder’s successor Arno Kompatscher, according to which one should "must proceed very carefully and cautiously on this subject, so as not to do more harm than good". Kompatscher had previously told the "Tyrolean daily newspaper", it exists "the danger that the debate could do us more harm than good", because it is known, "that in Vienna and Tyrol the enthusiasm was limited, because many questions of practical application were unclear" be.

Such a statement can not really surprise a long-time observer. Why? Because the governor of South Tyrol does it against his better knowledge, since the legal framework conditions, which Kompatscher rightly brings into play, have long been pointed out and clarified by Obwexer’s expert opinion and the (Verfangsdienst) expertise from the Viennese Chancellery. According to this, the dual citizenship was neither against the peace treaty that came into force in 1919, nor against the agreement concluded in Paris in 1946 between the then Austrian Minister of the Economy Karl Gruber and the Italian Prime Minister Alcide DeGasperi with regard to Sudtirol, as was apparently claimed by the Italian government "interested party" in almost rabbit-fashion willfulness towards ("the good ratio" to) Italy has been falsely reported from time to time.

In addition, a representative survey by the Linz Institute, initiated by the Sudtiroler Heimatbund (SHB) and presented publicly in Vienna in January 2015, revealed that "Spectra" the high approval of the Austrian population for the possible statehood of the Sudtiroleans is completely out of doubt. According to this, 83 percent of those questioned had expressed their agreement with it. More than four-fifths of the Austrians agreed with the granting of the Austrian citizenship to the Sudtiroler.

Disregard for the will of the people

The high level of approval in all age groups reveals that this particular ie is characterized by emotionality. The result should be all the more obvious to political leaders in Vienna as well as in Bolzano and/or Innsbruck and should move them to action, since citizenship for Sudtiroleans is not an economically motivated matter, but primarily the desire for an idealistic cause, which is at the same time almost a collective expression of the consciousness of national cohesion. Especially the Austrian federal politics, which has created the strongest braking effect in the topic, which has been virulent since 2006, especially in July 2013, when SPo, oVP and Grune, which had previously signaled approval in the committee work, shot down the corresponding motion of the FPo, is lagging behind the feeling and attitude of the vast majority of the population in this context. In other words, it blatantly disregards their will.

This is not new, but still strange. It would have been anything but detrimental to the skiing nation if, for example, Szeklerin Edit Miklos, mentioned at the beginning, had been able to compete for Hungary, or Christof Innerhofer from South Tyrol under the Austrian flag.

The author is a German-Austrian historian and publicist.

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